Breed History and Timeline
During the 1980’s Archaeologist’s found sculptures of an unknown breed of dog, which had been placed in tombs located in the Chongqing region of the Sichuan province (East) next to the bodies of nobility, who believed the dogs would give them protection in the after life, as more tombs were located similar statues were found suggesting that this particular breed of dog was held in high esteem by the people of that time.
The tombs were dated to the period of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C – 220 A.D.) a very prosperous period in China’s history which coincided with part of the 1000 year long Roman Empire (625 B.C – 476 A.D.)
Mosaics depicting dogs from the Roman Empire
The Romans valued their dogs and were known to build tombs for them with epitaphs to remember them by, one such inscription reads “I am in tears while I carry you to your final resting place, as much as I rejoiced when bringing you home with me 15 years ago”
Interesting to see how the dogs depicted in these Roman mosaics resemble the East Sichuan Terrier.
Dogs were found in the surrounding area that closely resembled the statues, these were agile dogs that were highly prized by their owners for their hunting ability, they also served as companion/guard dogs that lived in the family home. People lived an isolated rural life relying on their dogs to supply food for their Family, these dogs were known as the ‘East Sichuan Terrier’ but different names were used in some areas.
Over time the East Sichuan Terrier had evolved a unique look through natural selection, in that only the dogs that could work in intense heat over the rough terrain were used to breed the next generation, the look of the dogs was not considered important just that they were fit for purpose. This long period of natural evolution with no influence from the outside world has successfully reduced any health issues leaving a fit and healthy breed with a lifespan of 16-20 years!
After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (1949) the dog population was essentially eliminated as they were considered a symbol of capitalism, rural families who kept them for hunting had to pay taxes and few dogs were seen in the urban areas, only the best animals were used for breeding the next generation.
The East Sichuan terrier’s multi functional character saved it from being completely lost!
East Sichuan Terriers from the 1980's
When pet ownership was allowed in the 1980’s families moving from rural areas into Chongqing City and surrounding urban areas took their East Sichuan Terriers with them as companions and home guards. From then on some of these dogs were bred just for their looks over working ability, by breeders who wanted to develop a Chinese Bulldog selectively breeding to develop the Brachycephalic head type along with a stockier body.
Families were arriving from various rural areas bringing the local name for their pets with them which was creating confusion over what to call them now? So in the year 2000 the name ‘Chongqing Dog’ was given to dogs of similar type in the urban and rural areas surrounding Chongqing City ‘Hunting Hound’ and ‘City Dog’ were used to distinguish between the two types.
Sadly from 2002 to 2004 there was an outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in the region, the Chinese government had many of the local dogs in and around Chongqing City killed in an attempt to stop the spread of the disease! By the end of the SARS epidemic the number of ‘Chongqing Dogs’ had been significantly reduced with only the isolated rural dogs and individuals that had been taken out of the urban areas surviving the onslaught.
In 2006 the China Kennel Union (affiliated with the F.C.I.) was established, events were run to educate people encouraging pet ownership to help give dogs a better life in China, the C.K.U. also started to arrange Dog exhibitions. During 2016 the C.K.U. set up the ‘Chinese Native Breed Conservation Club’ headed by Mr Franki Leung who started to work with enthusiasts of the ‘Chongqing Dog’ … Franki pushed to create two distinct breeds as he was aware that a breed standard could not incorporate the two established ‘types’ …
In 2018 the first ever breed standards were published by the C.K.U. The City type was given the name ‘Chongqing Dog’ [FCI Group 2] a companion, guard dog based in urban areas. The Hunting type was given the name ‘Chuandong Hound’ [FCI Group 6] … ‘Chuandong’ is Chinese for East Sichuan ..Chuandong Hounds are still highly valued in rural areas for their hunting ability with many of the owner’s continuing to refer to their dogs as ‘East Sichuan Terriers’ …
Using ‘Chongqing Dog’ to document the early history is misleading and recreates the confusion the name’s introduction in the year 2000 was designed to clear up, the Chongqing Dog as a breed did not exist until 2018 so in truth was never used primarily as a hunting dog…. The early history for both breeds belongs to the East Sichuan Terrier!
The word ‘Hybrid’ is often used by people promoting the modern (2018) Chongqing Dog to demean the (2018) Chuandong Hound … In truth both are mixed breeds! [“Hybrid” refers to animals that are created when individuals of different species are bred together e.g Mule = Horse x Donkey. Because domestic dogs are all the same species mixed breed dogs are not an example of Hybrids] … This will remain the case until litters are bred with at least 5 generations of recorded ancestry (Pedigrees) behind them, at present (2020’s) the Chuandongs and Chongqings being bred from are in the majority first or second generation…
Timeline from the 1980's
Statues found in Tombs
The Tombs were dated to a prosperous time in Chinese history known as the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD)
Dogs that closely resembled the statues, were discovered in the rural areas surrounding Chongqing City.
Chongqing Dog ‘name’ created
Dogs of similar type living in and around Chongqing City are given the name Chongqing Dog to standardise the many local names used.
2002 - 2004
Out break of S.A.R.S
The Chinese government had many of the local dogs killed in an attempt to stop the spread of the disease. (severe acute respiratory syndrome)
China Kennel Union established
The China Kennel Union (CKU) started to arrange dog shows, educational events and promoted pet ownership to help give dogs a better quality of life in China.
CKU set up The Native breeds Conservation club
With Mr Franki Leung in charge the conservation club researched the Chinese Native breeds with the aim to standardise them to help protect them into the future.
The First Chuandong Hounds arrive in to the U.K.
During 2017 the first 4 Chuandong Hounds (1 male & 3 Females) arrived @ Cymrygold Kennel.
The Chuandong Hound Club was set up in September.
CKU publish First Breed standards
Chuandong Hound… FCI Group 6,
Chongqing Dog… FCI Group 2.
Laizhou Hong… FCI Group 2.
First breed seminar held outside of China (Holland)
The seminar’s speaker was Mr Franki Leung who also judged the show for both the Chuandong Hound and the Chongqing Dog.
Breed recognition by the Netherlands Kennel Club
The ‘Raad van Beheer’ accept an application made by Matthew Spinks, to add the Chuandong Hound and Chongqing Dog on to their interim breed register (FCI Group 11)
Chinese Native Breeds Association
In May of 2023, Mr Franki Leung suggested that the U.K. Breed clubs for the Chuandong Hound, Chongqing Dog and the Laizhou Hong work together as the breeds gain popularity in the U.K.
27th August 2023
World Dog Show Geneva
The Chuandong Hound, Chongqing Dog and Laizhou Hong compete for the First time @ The World Dog Show in Geneva Switzerland.
12th November 2023
Chinese Native Breeds Association Show
Shows and Seminars giving equal billing to our three breeds to be held in Coventry. Our Judge and speaker will be Mr Franki Leung